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果酒的抗氧化性与工艺研究

作者:优质期刊论文发表网  来源:www.yzqkw.com  发布时间:2019/10/12 9:23:25  

摘要:果酒的保健功能现在已成为人们的研究热点。果酒是以各种果品为原材料经榨汁处理后,利用酵母菌发酵产生的酒精饮品。因为其可以随着人们的需求调配成不同人群所喜欢的不同口味,对于老人和一些低龄人群可以调至成偏低酒精度及偏甜口味,再加上其具有很好的保健功能,因此受到大众的欢迎。

本文以常州大学中澳果酒研发中心酿造的白葡萄、水蜜桃、宣木瓜、蓝莓、杨梅和红心火龙果这6种果酒为样品。使用铁离子还原能力(Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power,FRAP)、1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(1,1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl,DPPH)自由基清除方法和福林酚试剂方法(Folin-ciocalteu regent,FCR)来确定SO2对这六种果酒的抗氧化性的影响。结果表明,在这6种果酒中,当总SO2的含量在22-224mg/L范围时,它们对不同果酒的抗氧化活性都有明显的促进作用。

在确定了SO2对果酒抗氧化性的增强作用后,再研究果酒中SO2介导的酚类物质、SO2与福林酚试剂的直接反应以及酚类和非酚类抗氧化物质对果酒总抗氧能力的相对作用。结果表明,在不同果酒中,它们对果酒的总体抗氧化性的相对作用有所差异。酚类物质的抗氧化作用占果酒总抗氧化性的54.08-92.53%,而非酚类物质的抗氧化作用占果酒总抗氧化性的0.87-19.07%,SO2与FCR反应的直接作用占果酒总抗氧化性的2.05-31.29%,这些数据表明酚类物质的抗氧化性大于非酚类物质和SO2的直接作用。而在杨梅酒中SO2介导的酚类物质占果酒的总抗氧化性的58.04%,却超过了酚类物质的作用(25.42%)。推测可能是由杨梅酒中的酚类物质和SO2的特异性结合决定的。

本文以红心火龙果为原料,进行红心火龙果酒的酿造工艺研究,建立一套适合红心火龙果酒的酿造工艺。同时对影响红心火龙果酒品质的重要工艺参数进行试验。试验所得的最佳工艺参数为:发酵酵母为法国Laffort 公司生产的RB2,酵母添加量0.3 g/L,发酵温度18 ℃,初始糖22%,果胶酶添加量0.10 g/L。在此条件下酿造的红心火龙果酒呈清澈的紫红色,酒体醇香,含有火龙果的天然风味,酒香浓厚,口感佳,颜色漂亮,具有典型性。

红心火龙果酒酿造试验中,在初始含糖量为220 g/L,酵母添加量为0.03 g/L的前提下将发酵液置于18 ℃环境下恒温发酵100 h。发酵100 h后酒精含量为9.05%,残糖量为6.02 g/L,酵母数量为3.6×108 CFU/mL。在这个过程中每隔5 h测其菌体数目、酒精含量以及残糖量。根据其动态特性,应用Logistic模型方程,建立其发酵过程中的动力学模型。通过origin 8.5软件对数据进行非线性回归分析,得出菌体生长、酒精生成和底物消耗的实际值与预测值拟合R2分别为0.999、0.999和0.998。具有较高的拟合度这些数据表明这些动力学方程能很好的反应红心火龙果酒发酵过程中菌体生长、酒精生成、底物消耗的动态变化特性。

Fruit wines are alcoholic beveragesproduced by yeast fermentation of various fruits. Because of their wide rangeof flavors and styles, e.g. sweetness and alcohol content, and improvements inquality due to advances in production technology, fruit wines are becomingincreasingly popular with consumers across a broad range of age groups. Thehuman health-related functionality of fruit wine is also attracting stronginterest.

In Part 1 of this study, the effect ofsulfur dioxide on the in vitro antioxidant capacity of wines made in ourlaboratory from six kinds of fruit, viz. white grape, peach, Chinese quince,blueberry, red bayberry and red dragon fruit, was determined. Antioxidantcapacity was determined by the FRAP, DPPH and FCR assays. Sulfur dioxide had asignificant, enhancing effect on the antioxidant activity of each wine.However, the relative effect on total, in vitro, antioxidant capacity variedsignificantly among the wines.

In a further study, the relativecontributions of sulfur dioxide-mediated augmentation of phenolic substances,and the direct contributions of phenolics, non-phenolic antioxidants and sulfurdioxide to in vitro antioxidant capacity, were determined by the FCR assay. Therelative contributions of each component to the overall antioxidant capacitydiffered among the wines. The antioxidant activity of phenolic substancesaccounted for 54.08-92.53% of the total antioxidant capacity of the fruitwines, while the antioxidant activity of non-phenolic substances accounted for0.87-19.07% of the total antioxidant capacity. The direct effect of sulfurdioxide accounted for 2.05-31.29% of the total antioxidant capacity. The dataindicates that the direct contribution of phenolic substances to in vitroantioxidant capacity of the fruit wines was greater than the of non-phenolicsubstances and sulfur dioxide. Notably, in the bayberry wine, the contributionof sulphur dioxide-mediated augmentation of the phenolics to the totalantioxidant capacity (58.04%) exceeded the contribution of phenolic substances(25.42%). It is speculated that this may due to the particular phenoliccomposition of the bayberry wine and its susceptibility to sulfurdioxide-mediated augmentation.

A study of wine made from red dragon fruitwas conducted to validate the important technological parameters affecting thequality of red dragon fruit wine. The optimum process parameters were asfollows: yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RB2 (Laffort, France); yeastaddition, 0.3 g/L; fermentation temperature, 18°C; adjusted, pre-ferment totalsoluble solids concentration of the juice, 22oBrix; and pectinase LafazymCL(Laffort, France), addition, 0.10 g/L. The wine fermented under theseconditions was an attractive, purple-red color and had the typical flavor andaroma of the fruit. The mouthfeel was smooth, and the taste distinctive.

In Part 4, the fermentation kinetics of reddragon fruit wine, under the following conditions: initial, adjusted totalsoluble solids concentration, 22oBrix; yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiaRB2(Laffort, France); activated yeast inoculation, 5%; and fermentationtemperature, 28℃. The number of yeast cells, the amount of alcohol, and theamount of residual sugar were measured every 5 hours. After fermentation for100h, the alcohol content was 9.05%, the residual sugar content was 6.02 g/Land the number of yeast cells was 3.86×108 CFU/mL. Using logistic modelequations, a kinetic model for yeast cell multiplication, substrate consumptionand alcohol generation during the fermentation was established. Nonlinearregression and variance analysis of yeast cell number with substrateconsumption and alcohol generation were performed with Origin 8.5. The R2values of predicted and actual values for each parameter were 0.999,0.999 and0.998 respectively.

关键词:福林酚方法;抗氧化活性;红心火龙果酒;工艺参数;发酵动力学

Folin-ciocalteu regent; antioxidantactivity; pitaya wine; Process parameters; fermentation kinetic

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